Reverse Osmosis of water is the most economical method of removing up to 99% of contaminants in potable water. In the Avidity Science Water Technology range, there are a number of systems which provide RO water and the choice depends on the amount of water required. Water is produced into a reservoir which allows it to be drawn off in large volumes or for many points of use around a building.
Some of the uses of Type 3 (Primary Grade) RO Water produced from this technology are:
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Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the most economical method of removing up to 99% of your feed water’s contaminants. It is a percentage rejection technology. The resulting product water is therefore dependent on the quality of the incoming water. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property driven by chemical potential. During natural osmosis, water flows from a less concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution until concentration and pressure on both sides of the membrane are equal. In reverse osmosis, external pressure is applied to feed water to reverse the natural osmotic flow. Pure water passes through the membrane removing up to 99% of contaminants that are directed to drain (the concentrate). The purified water passing through the membrane is referred to as the permeate. This is collected in a reservoir and can be further processed.
RO removes particles larger than 0.1 nm to produce a permeate of higher purity than ultra-filtered water. The pores in an RO membrane can be 0.0001 micron or 500,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. In RO membranes, a layer of asymmetric membrane or an interfacial polymerized layer within a thin-film-composite membrane provides a particularly dense layer within the matrix where separation of ionic solutes occurs under pressure. Unlike membrane filtration which relies on size exclusion and can theoretically achieve perfect efficiency, RO also involves diffusion and is therefore dependent on pressure, flow rate and temperature. Most RO systems will need a reservoir to store the purified water as the flow rate is usually less than the peak demand.